General Principles

Statutory interpretation is governed by only one principle or approach, namely, the words of an Act are to be read in their entire context and in their grammatical and ordinary sense harmoniously with the scheme of the Act, the object of the Act, and the intention of Parliament: R v Osborne, 2017 ONCA 129 at para 49

The maxim expressio unius est exclusio alterius (“to express one thing is to exclude another”) provides “at the most merely a guide to interpretation” and does not pre-ordain conclusions. Reliance on implied exclusion can be misleading and should be treated with caution. It is not enough to show that the enacting legislature has expressly or specifically addressed a particular matter. A court must be convinced that the express provisions are meant to be an exhaustive statement of the law concerning a particular matter: R v Fercan Developments, 2016 ONCA 269 at paras 60-61